田舎の邸宅 によって 拓也土田
Overweight Americans have the lowest risk of premature death.
By Lisa Wade, PhD
Last year the Journal of the American Medical Association released a study aiming to determine the relationship between body mass index and the risk of premature death. Body mass index, or BMI, is the ratio between your height and weight. According to the National Institutes of Health, you are “normal weight” if your ratio is between 18.5-24.9. Everything over that is “overweight” or “obese” and everything under is “underweight.”
This study was a meta-analysis, which is an analysis of a collection of existing studies that systematically measures the sum of our knowledge. In this case, the authors analyzed 97 studies that included a combined 2.88 million individuals and over 270,000 deaths. They found that overweight individuals had a lower risk of premature death than so-called normal weight individuals and there was no relationship between being somewhat obese and the rate of early death. Only among people in the high range of obesity was there a correlation between their weight and a higher risk of premature death.
Here’s what it looked like.
Above is two columns of studies plotted according to the hazard ratio they reported for people. This comparison is between people who are “overweight” (BMI = 25-29.9) and people who are “normal weight” (BMI = 18.5-24.9). Studies that fall below the line marked 1.0 found a lower rate of premature death and studies above the line found a higher rate.
Just by eyeballing it, you can confirm that there is not a strong correlation between weight and premature death, at least in this population. When the scientists ran statistical analyses, the math showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between being “overweight” and a lower risk of death.
Here’s the same data, but comparing the risk of premature death among people who are “normal weight” (BMI = 18.5-24.9) and people who are somewhat “obese” (BMI = 30-34.9). Again, eyeballing the results suggest that there’s not much correlation and, in fact, statistical analysis found none.
Finally, here are the results comparing “normal weight” (BMI = 18.5-24.9) and people who are quite “obese” (BMI = 35 or higher). In this case, we do see a relationship between risk of premature death in body weight.
It’s almost funny that the National Institutes of Health use the word normal when talking about BMI. It’s certainly not the norm – the average BMI in the U.S. falls slightly into the “overweight” category (26.6 for adult men and 25.5 for adult women) — and it’s not related to health. It’s clearly simply normative. It’s related to a socially constructed physical ideal that has little relationship to what physicians and public health advocates are supposed to be concerned with. Normal is judgmental, but if they changed the word to healthy, they have to entirely rejigger their prescriptions.
So, do we even have an obesity epidemic? Perhaps not if we use health as a marker instead of some arbitrary decision to hate fat. Paul Campos, covering this story for the New York Times, points out:
If the government were to redefine normal weight as one that doesn’t increase the risk of death, then about 130 million of the 165 million American adults currently categorized as overweight and obese would be re-categorized as normal weight instead.
It’s worth saying again: if we are measuring by the risk of premature death, then 79% of the people we currently shame for being overweight or obese would be recategorized as perfectly fine. Ideal, even. Pleased to be plump, let’s say, knowing that a body that is a happy balance of soft and strong is the kind of body that will carry them through a lifetime.
But they ain’t trying to hear you tho. Better to hate on fat people. You’ll get more money for weight loss surgery that way
ugh I really miss the days when I was super excited to work on a creative project and not dreading it
I have such a hard time focusing these days
this is a constant battle
do I genuinely prefer how my legs look/feel shaved or have i just been conditioned to prefer it?
do miniskirts and thigh high socks only make me feel more confident because i know men find me more attractive in them?
how can i tell? is there even a way to tell at this point?
On the opposite end of the spectrum, do conscious people actually prefer the opposite of these societal conditionings or do they just fall in love with the subversion behind it?
Every aspect of human nature is socially conditioned. Even those aspects which seem counter to our society.
it’s ok not to be able to look how you want bc of beauty standards tho
like if you just shave your legs so ppl don’t laugh & stare at you, that’s fine. that’s what i do. idk about distinguishing between what i personally want vs what i’ve been trained to want, but i do know about : making choices between which type of comfort i want to prioritize (e.g. feeling more comfortable physically vs. feeling more comfortable under the gaze of strangers).
i mean, it’s fine to do things to avoid getting harassed, it’s fine to do things to get by in a patriarchal society. it doesn’t make you a bad feminist to invest energy into adhering to beauty standards you don’t like. sometimes you feel like you need to & it sucks but. still.
(note: what i’m trying to say is very different from “all choices are feminist bc it is a choice you made & you have agency”, i hope that is clear enough)
I’m not entirely clear on the point of the last commenter, but I think we really have to move away from the idea of being a “bad feminist” or a “good feminist” due to our personal choices because this type of thinking is inherently individualistic and since feminism is a political movement, it isn’t really about whether you feel like a good or bad feminist, and we shouldn’t need to be consoled or coddled about our feminist status. So many people get defensive over these things and start emphasizing like “I can wear lipstick AND be a feminist!!!” Like cool that’s great, your lipstick is completely irrelevant to feminism though, because the point isn’t to rack up some sort of feminist “points” and become the #1 leading gold medal champion feminist, the point is to advance the political movement in some way you know, if you’re being an activist.
So the difference really between shaving and not shaving for example in our patriarchal society isn’t how good or bad of a feminist you are, but rather one is a subversive political action (which is why it’s a little dangerous in the sense that you risk harassment etc), and one goes along with patriarchal expectations (generally to avoid this harassment). The one that’s a political action ends up being kinda more relevant than the not political action… However, this doesn’t mean you can’t be relevant to feminism in other ways, ya know?
- daddy issues
- friend zoned
- jail bait
angel aura quartz
He is taking a course on Marxist ideology.
He says, “The only real solution is to smash the system and start again.”
His thumb is caressing the most bourgeois copy of the communist manifesto that I have ever seen,
He bought it at Barnes and Noble for twenty-nine U.S. American dollars and ninety-nine cents,
Its hard cover shows a dark man with a scarved face
Waving a gigantic red flag against a fictional smoky background.
The matte finish is fucking gorgeous.
He wants to be congratulated for paying Harvard sixty thousand dollars
To teach him that the system is unfair.
He pulls his iPhone from his imported Marino wool jacket, and leaves.
What people can’t possibly tell from the footage on TV
Is that the water cannon feels like getting whipped with a burning switch.
Where I come from, they fill it with sewer water and hope that they get you in the face with your mouth open
So that the hepatitis will keep you in bed for the next protest.
What you can’t tell from Harvard square,
Is that when the tear gas bursts from nowhere to everywhere all at once,
It scrapes your insides like barbed wire, sawing at your lungs.
Tear gas is such a benign term for it,
If you have never breathed it in you would think it was a nostalgic experience.
What you can’t learn at Barnes and Noble,
Is that when they rush you, survival is to run,
I am never as fast as when the police are chasing me.
I know what happens to women in the holding cells down there and yet…
We still do it.
I inherited my communist manifesto,
It has no cover—
Because my mother ripped it off when she hid it in the dust jacket of “Don Quixote”
The day before the soldiers destroyed her apartment,
Looking for subversive propaganda.
She burned the cover, could not bring herself to burn the pages,
Hoped to God the soldiers couldn’t read,
They never found it.
So she was not killed for it, but her body bore the scars of the torture chamber,
For wanting her children to have a better life than she did,
Don’t talk to me about revolution.
I know what the price of smashing the system really is, my people already tried that.
The price of uprise is paid in blood,
And not Harvard blood.
The blood that ran through the streets of Santiago,
The blood thrown alive from Argentine helicopters into the Atlantic.
It is easy to say “revolution” from the comfort of a New England library.
It is easy to offer flesh to the cause,
When it is not yours to give.
Catalina Ferro, “Manifesto” (via dialecticsof)
I feel like people do need to remember that there is a very real, very painful, very human element to the word “revolution”.
If you’re poor, the only way you’re likely to injure someone is the old traditional way: artisanal violence, we could call it – by hands, by knife, by club, or maybe modern hands-on violence, by gun or by car.
But if you’re tremendously wealthy, you can practice industrial-scale violence without any manual labor on your own part. You can, say, build a sweatshop factory that will collapse in Bangladesh and kill more people than any hands-on mass murderer ever did, or you can calculate risk and benefit about putting poisons or unsafe machines into the world, as manufacturers do every day. If you’re the leader of a country, you can declare war and kill by the hundreds of thousands or millions. And the nuclear superpowers – the US and Russia – still hold the option of destroying quite a lot of life on Earth.
So do the carbon barons. But when we talk about violence, we almost always talk about violence from below, not above.
hey you. you fabulous human being interested in being a puppy parent!
this is your mid-summer reminder not to buy dogs..ever.
not from pet stores.. not from breeders…nope..sorry, pal. just don’t do it.
there are so many dogs that need to be rescued from your local shelter. do that instead. not only are they smart and loving and amazing, but you’ll be saving their life, and giving them the best doggy life ever.
also, dog breeding is really weird. do you know that most bulldogs are artificially inseminated because their weirdo bred bodies are unable to mount one another? did you know that pugs have tons of breathing problems? and dachshunds are cute but they have spinal issues?
these dogs are bred to look a certain way, not for optimal health. plus, there are tons of breed specific rescues, and you might be able to find one at your local shelter, if you’re really crazy about a certain breed.
so, don’t shop, adopt!